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This glossary is a compilation of terms, words, and acronyms used in industrial water treatment. They may apply to a wide variety of systems, processes, and technologies including plant and worker safety and environmental regulation. In many cases, a term may have more than one applicable definition.

| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N |
| O | P | Q | R |S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |


115V/60/1 Electrical data meaning 115 volts alternating current/60 cycle (Hertz)/single phase.

304 SS 304 stainless steel. Exhibits good corrosion resistance to most water treatment chemicals.

316 SS 316 stainless steel. Generally good corrosion resistance (and expensive) tan 304 SS.

4-20mA A current which represents a conductivity, pH, ORP, liquid level or corrosion rate. Provided by a controller to a monitoring automation system for data logging purposes. 4-20mA outputs should be DC isolated to prevent errors due to ground loop currents.

440V/60/3 Electrical data meaning 440 volts alternating current/60 cycle (Hertz)/three phase.


A/D CONVERSION Electrical data meaning 115 volts alternating current/60 cycle (Hertz)/single phase.

ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY Amount of moisture in the air, indicated in grains per cubic foot.

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE Gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure (14.7 lbs. per sq. in.).

ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE Temperature measured from absolute zero.

ABSOLUTE ZERO The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, 459.69 below zero on the Fahrenheit scale, 273.16 below zero on the Centigrade scale.

ABSORBENT Substance which has the ability to take up or absorb another substance.

ABSORPTION Assimilation of molecules or other substances into the physical structure of a liquid or solid without chemical reaction. Ac1 -The temperature at which austenite begins to discard ferrite on cooling. Ac3 -The temperature at which transformation of austenite to ferrite plus pearlite is completed during cooling.

ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION A refrigeration system which cools by the evaporating of water. Water vapor is reclaimed by absorption in a concentrated salt solution, usually lithium bromide. The salt solution is then boiled at a temperature and pressure that permits the vapor to be driven off, and subsequently recondensed.

ACCEPTANCE TESTING Uniform standards to determine the water cooling capability of cooling towers. Instrumentation and measurements are performed in accordance with methods outlined in the Cooling Tower Institute (CTI), Bulletin Acceptance Test procedure (ATP) 105, or ASME PTC 1958. Tests should be utilized to ascertain that new or rebuilt cooling towers produce Design Conditions that the owner is paying for. Testing normally is done by third party-not the Owner or Contractor. Confidential report is submitted to person paying for testing and the owner.

ACCESS TUNNEL Opening in Natural Draft Tower used for access to the cold water basin. It can be large enough for a man only, or large enough for mechanical equipment.

ACCUMULATOR A storage chamber for low side liquid refrigerant: also known as surge drum, surge header. Also, a pressure vessel whose volume is used in a refrigerant circuit to reduce pulsation.

ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

ACID A substance that has the ability to ionize to form a hydrogen ion.

ACID CLEANING The act of removing adhering deposits by dissolving with an acid soluble state in which the deposited material is dissociated into a completely soluble state or where the binding material is made soluble. In the latter action the insoluble part is disintegrated or dislodged.

ACID DEW POINT The temperature at which an acid can condense as a liquid.

ACIDIC SOLUTION A solution with a pH lower than 7.

ACIDITY The quantitative capacity of aqueous media to react with hydroxyl ions.

ACTIVATED ALUMINA Chemical used as a drier or desiccant.

ACTIVATED CARBON Specially processed carbon used as a filter-drier; commonly used to clean air.

ACTIVATED SLUDGE An acrobic biological process for conversion of soluble organic matter to solid biomass, removable by gravity or filtration.

ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS Removes organic matter from wastewater by saturating it with air and biologically active sludge.

ACUTE EFFECTS Those effects to health which occur rapidly following short term exposure, and which are generally of short duration.

ACUTE TOXICITY The ability of a substance to cause injury as a result of short-term (usually minutes or hours) exposure. Such exposures are usually accidental.

ADDRESS A digital code identifying a specific destination or source location in a computer's memory or peripheral.

ADMIRALTY BRASS An alloy of 70 percent copper, 29 percent zinc, and 1 percent tin. Arsenic or antimony may be included to minimize dezincification.

ADSORBENT A material which has the ability to cause molecules of gases, liquids or solids to adhere to its internal surfaces without changing the adsorbent physically or chemically. Certain solid materials such as silica gel, activated carbon and activated alumina have this property.

ADSORBENT A synthetic resin possessing the ability to attract and to hold charged particles.

ADSORPTION The action, associated with surface adherence of a material in extracting one or more substances present in an atmosphere or mixture of gases and liquids unaccompanied by physical or chemical change. Commercial adsorbent materials have enormous internal surfaces.

ADSORPTION The attachment of charged particles to the chemically active groups on the surface and in the pores of a synthetic resin.

AERATED A condition or state wherein a solution contains dissolved atmospheric gases through intimate contact with air.

AERATION The act of dissolving or bringing into solution atmospheric gases. Specific interest in cooling water is atmospheric oxygen so brought into solution.

AERATION TANK A chamber for injecting air or oxygen into water.

AEROBE An organism that grows in the presence of free (molecular) oxygen.

AEROBIC ORGANISM An organism that thrives in the presence of oxygen.

AEROSOL A colloidal system involving liquid or solid particulates dispersed in air.

AFTER COOLER A heat exchanger to cool gases discharging from a compressor.

AGAR An extract of seaweed used to add firmness to nutrient media and provide for the growth of specific colonies on the surface.

AGE The time allotted for the polymer to uncoil and become fully effective.

AGGLOMERATE To gather fine particulates together into a larger mass.

AGITATOR SPEED The speed at which a clarifier agitator harvests slurry from the unit bottom and pumps it to the centerwells' upper zone.

AIR CONDENSER A surface condenser cooled by contact with air.

AIR CONDITIONER Device used to control temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and movement of air in conditioned spaces.

AIR FLOW Total amount of dry air and associated water vapor flowing through the tower, measured at exhaust from the tower and converted to standard air which has a density of 0.075 lb. per cu. ft. Units: quantity, lb. per hr.; velocity, fpm. Standard air = (acfm) (density at DBT, WBT and pressure/0.075).

AIR HORSEPOWER The measure of useful power required to move a given air rate against a given resistance. The ratio of air horsepower to fan horsepower is the measure of fan efficiency.

AIR INLET Area of cooling tower where air is initially introduced into unit by action of air flow generator.

AIR PREHEATER A heat exchanger which uses hot gases to heat air. The heat in the flue gas leaving the boiler is recovered by the incoming combustion air, thereby increasing the combustion air temperature and the combustion efficiency.

AIR SCOURING Cleaning technique to agitate surface sludge via pressurized air.

AIR WASHER A system for removal of airborne contaminants of foulants from air flow through cooling tower. Also regulates temperature or humidity by passing entering air through a water spray chamber.

ALGAE A low form of plant life which generally requires sunlight and air for existence. Causes plugging of heat exchanger tubes and cooling tower distribution systems.

ALGAECIDE A toxic material which will retard or prevent the growth of algae and slimes. Some of the more commonly used algaecides are chlorine, copper sulfate and phenolic compounds.

ALGORITHM A pattern or set of procedures that defines a general method of solution to obtain a given result. Formula for controlling an output.

ALKALINE SOLUTION A solution having a pH greater than 7.

ALKALINITY Acid neutralizing power of a solution. In water analysis, generally expressed as ppm CaCO3. All changes occur at lower temperatures on cooling than during heating and depend upon the rate of change of temperature. For our purposes, we assume that equilibrium conditions exist, referring to the lower critical point as A1, and the upper critical point as A3.

ALKALINITY By definition, total alkalinity (also called "M" alkalinity) is that which will react with acid as the pH of the sample is reduced to the methyl orange endpoint-about pH 4.2. Another significant expression is "P" alkalinity, which exists above pH 8.2 and is that which reacts with acid as the pH of the sample is reduced to 8.2.

ALLOY Material that has metallic properties and is composed of two or more chemical elements, at least one of which is a metal.

ALPHA IRON Form of iron, which has body-centered cubic structure and is stable below A3 point (see Transformation Temperature).
Also note that the presence of dissolved oxygen in the water may cause water with a "zero" Langelier's Index to be corrosive rather than "neutral."

ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) Electric current in which direction of flow alternates or changes, in 60 cycle current direction of flow reverses every 120th second.

ALTERNATING SYSTEM A dual unit, automatic softener system which has one unit in service and one unit on standby. When a predetermined gallonage of soft water has passed, or when a monitor detects hard water, the idle or standby unit goes into service and the present unit is regenerated and becomes the idle unit.

ALUM Sulfate salt of aluminum. The chemical compound, Al2(SO4)3. 18H2O, commonly used in water clarification applications as a coagulant aid.

AMBIENT Generally speaking, the air surrounding an object.

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE External outdoor temperature as reported by periodic readings, also know as the dry bulb temperature, measured in the regular manner with conventional instruments.

AMBIENT WET BULB TEMPERATURE Wet bulb temperature of air measured windward of the tower and free from the influence of the tower. Unit: F. C.

AMIDES A generic name for compounds formed by the replacement of the hydrogen atom of ammonia by acyl groups. Example R-CONH2, RCO-NH-CO-R, where R with CO represents the acyl group.

AMINES A generic name for compounds formed by the replacement of hydrogen atoms of ammonia by organic alkyl groups. Example: R-NH2 R-NH-R, where R represents the alkyl group.

AMMETER An electric meter used to measure current, calibrated in amperes.

AMMONIA Chemical combination of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3). Ammonia refrigerant is identified by R-117.

AMMONIA STRIPPING Ammonia removal from a liquid, usually by intimate contact with an ammonia-free gas, such as air.

AMPERAGE Electron or current, flow of one coulomb per second past given point in circuit.

AMPERE Unit of electric current equivalent to flow of one coulomb per second.

AMPEROMETRIC An analytical method based on the determination of a flow of current where the current flow is related to the concentration of the material being determined.

AMPEROMETRIC TITRATION A testing method to determine free or combined chlorine levels that is based on the increase in polarization as the level of available chlorine is decreased by the addition of an phenylarsine oxide.

AMPHOTERIC Capable of reacting in water either as a weak acid or as a weak base. For example, aluminum salts hydrolyze in water to produce a compound that may be considered a weak base, Al(OH)3, or a weak acid, H3AlO3. A property of certain oxides makes them reactive both with acids and bases. Al2O3 is an example; 1. Al2O3 + 3H2SO4' Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O. 2. Al2O3 + 2NaOH' NA2AL2O4 + H2O.

AMPLIFICATION The multiplication of a species within a system.

ANAEROBE An organism that can thrive in the absence of oxygen.

ANAEROBIC Bacteria able to survive in an oxygen-free environment.

ANAEROBIC ORGANISM One that can thrive in the absence of oxygen.

ANALOG SIGNAL Signal that continuously varies in amplitude, simulating physical quantities with an electrical quantity, e.g. 4 to 20 mA, 0 to 5 Volts, 0 to 1 mA.

ANCHOR BOLT A threaded bolt imbedded in a concrete basin or fitted to supporting members, to which an anchor casting is attached.

ANCHOR CASTING (Column Anchor) A device for attaching the tower structure to the foundation; it does not include the anchor bolt.

ANEMOMETER Instrument for measuring the rate of flow of air.

ANION A negatively charged ion.

ANION EXCHANGE Ion exchange process involving anions.

ANION INTERCHANGE The displacement of one negatively charged particle by another on an anion exchange material.

ANION SURFACE CHARGE A negative electrical charge which is usually strong enough to overcome the mutually attractive force of particles.

ANNEALING Process of heating and cooling; for mild steel, usually involves heating to slightly above the A3 point (see Transformation Temperature), followed by slow cooling. The process is used to relieve stresses, to form pearlitic structure, to produce grain refinement, to remove gases, and to soften the metal.

ANNUAL RING The annual increment of wood as it appears on the transverse surface. An annual ring is composed of springwood and summerwood.

ANODE A positive electrode toward which negatively charged nonmetallic ions migrate and at which oxidation occurs in an electrolytic cell. In corrosion processes, the anode is usually the electrode having a greater tendency to go into solution.

ANODE Corrosion point where oxidation and metal dissolution occurs.

ANODIC INHIBITOR A material or combination of materials that prevent or reduce corrosion by a physical, physiochemical, or chemical action at the anodic surface of a metal.

ANODIZING The treatment of a metal surface whereby the metal is made anodic.

ANSI American National Standards Institute; a privately funded, voluntary membership organization that identifies industrial and public needs for national consensus standards and coordinates development of such standards. Many ANSI standards relate to safe design/performance of equipment-such as safety shoes, eyeglasses, smoke detectors, fire pumps, household appliances-and safe practice or procedures-such as noise measurement, testing of fire extinguishers and flame arrestors, industrial lighting practices, and use of abrasive wheels.

ANTI FOAM Chemical that prevents water from forming stable foam.

ANTIFOULANT General term applied to a broad class of chemical additives including dispersants, scale inhibitors, and surfactants.

ANTI-SIPHON VALVE A valve designed to prevent siphoning when a pump is installed in a "negative" pressure application; i.e. above the point of injection, into atmosphere or into the suction side of a water circulating pump.

API American Petroleum Institute; voluntary membership organization of the petroleum industry. Among its services, API assists member committees in developing-by the consensus process-and publishing recommended practices for drilling and well servicing, storage tank installation, tank cleaning, piping and fittings, other industry-related design, installation, and operating practices; also funds and publishes basic reference books and manuals (example: Industrial Hygiene Monitoring Manual for Petroleum Refineries and Selected Petrochemical Operations").

API GRAVITY An index of specific gravity defined by the American Petroleum Institute.

API SEPARATOR A simple gravity separator meeting the design standards of the American Petroleum Institute for separation of oil and solids from wastewater.

APPLIED STRESS Stress created by design, installation, or service conditions.

APPROACH Temperature difference in degrees between the water leaving the tower and the wet bulb temperature of the air entering the cooling tower. Performance is measured in terms of APPROACH. The cost of a 6F approach tower for the same heat load would be approximately 50% higher than a unit cooling to a 10 approach.

APPROACH Temperature difference in degrees Fahrenheit between the cold water leaving the tower and the wet bulb temperature of the cooling tower.

AQUIFER A water-bearing rock, rock formation, or group of formations.

AQUIRED IMMUNITY A state of existence that allows a species to survive under conditions that previously prevented it from amplifying. A species is forced to acquire immunity when subjected to the same attack, or cease to exist. Survey individuals within the species transmit the immunity to their offspring. This term should not be confused with natural immunity.

AREA That part of the metal surface involved in a chemical, electrochemical, or physical action directly related to scale deposits, corrosion, fouling, etc.

AREA EFFECT Anodic corrosion rates may be spread over a large area (low corrosion rates), or a small area (high corrosion rates).

ARMATURE Revolving part in electric motor or generator.

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Committee formulated requirements for the construction of tanks and pressure vessels (ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code).

ASPHYXIANT A vapor or gas which can cause unconsciousness or death by suffocation (lack of oxygen). Most simple asphyxiants are harmful to the body only when they become so concentrated that they reduce normal oxygen concentration in the air (about 21 percent) to dangerous levels (18 percent or lower). Asphyxiation is one of the principal potential hazards of working in confined spaces.

ASTM American Society of Testing and Materials; voluntary membership organization with members from broad spectrum of individuals, agencies, and industries concerned with materials. The world's largest source of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems, and services. ASTM is a resource for sampling and testing methods, health, and safety aspects of materials, safe performance guidelines, effects of physical and biological agents, and chemicals.

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE Pressure that gases in air exert upon the earth; measured in pounds per square inch.

ATMOSPHERIC TOWER A natural draft cooling tower in which air flow across falling water depends on wind conditions.

ATOM Smallest particle of element that can exist alone or in combination.

ATOMIC WEIGHT The mass of one atom of an element relative to one atom of carbon.

ATOMIZATION The process of converting a liquid or solid to a fine spray, minute particles, or light dust.

ATTRITION The rubbing of one particle against another in a resin bed; frictional wear that will affect the size of resin particles.

ATYPICAL PNEUMONIA An illness whose symptoms resemble pneumonia but whose causative agent is not S. pneumococcus.

AUSTENITE Solid solution in which gamma iron (face-centered cubic crystal) is the solvent. Normally present in steel above A3 point (see Transformation Temperature). It is nonmagnetic. Example: 300 series stainless steel.

AUTOCATALYTIC REACTION Self-propagating reactions that speed up the corrosion process.

AUTOIGNITION TEMPERATURE The minimum temperature required to initiate or cause self-sustained combustion in any substance in the absence of a flame or spark.

AUTOMATIC EXPANSION VALVE (AEV) Pressure controlled valve which reduces high pressure liquid refrigerant to low pressure liquid refrigerant.

AUTOMATIC SOFTENER A fully automatic softener regenerates at regular intervals, without attention by the homeowner to provide a continuous supply of soft, conditioned water.

AVOGADRO'S NUMBER The number of molecules in a gram-molecular weight of any substance, 6.02 X 1023.

AXIAL FLOW Air movement parallel to spinning axis generated by rotating fan blades.

AZEOTROPE A constant boiling mixture.

AZEOTROPIC MIXTURE Example of azeotropic mixture-refrigerant R-502 is mixture consisting of 48.8% refrigerant R-22, and 51.2% R-115. The refrigerants do not combine chemically, yet azeotropic mixture provides refrigerant characteristics desired.


BACK CORONA Flow of current of an ESP divided by its effective height

BACK FLOW PREVENTOR A device used to prevent back-siphonage of contaminated or chemically treated water into potable water supplies. Should be used when injecting chemical that are not approved for potable use in an extension of the potable water supply, i.e. make-up lines.

BACK PRESSURE Pressure in low side of refrigerating system; also called suction pressure of low side pressure.

BACKWASH That part of the operating cycle of an ion-exchange process wherein a reverse upward flow of water expands the bed, effecting such physical changes as loosening the bed to counteract compacting, stirring up and washing off light insoluble contaminants to clean the bed, or separating a mixed bed into its components to prepare it for regeneration.

BACKWASHING After the ion exchange capacity of the water softener resin is exhausted, it is necessary to recharge the resin so that its original capacity will be restored. A very important step of this process is backwashing, which is accomplished by reversing the flow of water through the resin. This upward flow of water carries out to the drains, any dirt and oxidized iron collected on top of the mineral bed. Backwashing also prevents the resin bed from becoming packed or channeled.

BACTERIA A lower form of plant life. These organisms are usually in the form of rods, cocci, and vibrios. Bacteria are responsible for slime in cooling water systems.

BACTERIA The smallest living organisms which comprise, along with fungi, the decomposer category of the food chain.

BACTERICIDE A preparation that kills a percentage (not 100%) of total bacterial population. Not to be confused with algaecide.

BACTERIAL INHIBITOR A preparation that does not kill bacteria directly but does not allow bacteria to amplify.

BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION New wells and private water supplies should be treated at periodic intervals to determine if the water is safe to drink. This bacteria test should be made by the State Board of Health. A water softener, iron remover, clarifier or neutralizer does not purify water.

BAG HOUSE Device used in boilers to recover chemicals or to control stack emissions. Also known as fabric filters.

BAINITE A decomposition product of austenite forming at temperatures greater than those at which martensite forms and below those where pearlite forms.

BALANCING VALVE Hand or mechanically operated valve installed in each riser pipe of a multicell tower to permit altering the water flow to the unit to equalize or change the volume over each cell.

BAROMETER Instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure. It may be calibrated in pounds per square inch or in inches of mercury in column.

BAROMETRIC LEG Use of moving streams of water to draw a vacuum; aspirator.

BASE A chemical that dissolves or reacts with water to form OH ions.

BASE EXCHANGE The property of the trading of cations shown by certain insoluble naturally occurring materials (zeolites) and developed to a high degree of specificity and efficiency in synthetic resin adsorbents.

BASIC SOLUTION A solution with a pH higher than 7

BASICITY The amines to neutralize dissolved carbon dioxide or neutralize acids.

BASIDIOMYCETES The highest and most developed class of fungi. This group of fungi is characterized on the basis of their morphological characteristics and on the basis of their spore production.

BASIN Bottom collecting area of cold water returning to suction line. Crossflow tower has additional top hot water distribution basin and in some few cases, an intermediate hot water distribution basin is located halfway between the top basin and the bottom collecting basin.

BASIN Generally that part of a cooling tower that receives the water passing over and dispersed by the interior wood structure. This may sometimes be referred to as the sump or it may be used to designate the pond area of a constructed spray cooling system.

BASIN CURB Top level of the retaining wall of the cold water basin; usually the datum point from which tower elevation points, tower static, and total pumping heads are measured.

BATCH OPERATION The utilization of ion exchange resins to treat a solution in a container wherein the removal of ions is accomplished by agitation of the solution and subsequent decanting of the treated liquid.

BAUD RATE Data communication speed, the number of discrete signal events sent per second.

BAY The area between two bents or lines of framing members.

BED The ion exchange resin contained in a column.

BED DEPTH The height of the resinous material in the column after the exchanger has been properly conditioned for effective operation.

BED EXPANSION The effect produced during backwashing; the resin particles become separated and rise in the column. The expansion of the bed due to the increase in the space between resin particles may be controlled by regulating backwash flow.

BELLOWS Corrugated cylindrical container which moves as pressures change, or provides a seal during movement of parts.

BENT A line of structural framework composed of columns, girts or ties; a bent may incorporate diagonal bracing members.

BENT-TUBE BOILER A boiler that uses two, three, and sometimes four drums connected by bent tubes to increase the tubes' heat-absorbing surface and to enhance the unit's flexibility and adaptability to space limitations.

BENTHIC REGION The bottom of a body of water. This region supports the benthos, a type of life that not only lives upon but contributes to the character of the bottom.

BEVEL WASHER A metal fitting used to accommodate through-bolts to angular position of a diagonal member, usually connecting to columns or other framework members.

BICARBONATE A form of alkalinity found in varying amounts in all natural waters and in cooling water systems. It represents carbonic acid with half of the acidity neutralized or it can be considered carbonate with half of the alkalinity neutralized.

BICARBONATE ALKALINITY The presence in a solution of hydroxyl (OH-) ions resulting from the hydrolysis of carbonates or bicarbonates. When these salts react with water, a strong base and a weak acid are produced, and the solution is alkaline.

BIGHT An indentation or recess in the shore of a sea; a bay.

BIMETAL STRIP Temperature regulating or indicating device which works on principle that two dissimilar metals with unequal expansion rates, welded together, will bend as temperatures change.

BIMETALLIC COUPLE Two metals in electrical contact that exert different electromotive forces in a solution to produce an electrochemical cell with corrosion occurring on the more soluble or active metal.

BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) The amount of oxygen required to sustain biological activity.

BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) The quantity of oxygen required for the biological and chemical oxidation of water borne substances under conditions of test.

BIOCIDE Any toxic agent effective in destroying biological fouling organisms in cooling water systems.

BIODEGRADABLE In water treatment, it implies the chemicals are broken down into harmless components once released into the environment.

BIOFOULING The excessive growth and development of members of the lower forms of the plant kingdom.

BIOLOGICAL DEPOSITS Water formed deposits of organisms or the products of their life processes. Note: The biological deposits may be composed of microscopic organisms, as in slimes, or of macroscopic types such as barnacles or mussels. Slimes are usually composed of deposits of a gelatinous or filamentous nature.

BIOLOGICAL FOULING In cooling systems this represents obstructive growth or accumulation of various organisms such as algae, bacteria, and molds.

BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION The process whereby, through the activity of living organisms in a aerobic environment, organic matter is converted to more biologically stable matter.

BIOLOGICAL STABILIZATION Reduction in the net energy level or organic matter as a result of the metabolic activity of organisms, so that further biodegradation is very slow.

BIOLOGICAL TESTS Examination for the purpose of determining the presence, identity, numbers or effects of the presence of any organism in industrial water.

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT Organic waste treatment in which bacteria and/or biochemical action are intensified under controlled conditions.

BIOTA All living organisms of a region or system.

BLACK LIQUOR Kraft cooking liquor recovered from brown stock washers in the pulp mill.

BLAST FURNACE A furnace producing iron from ore by reduction with coke.

BLEACHED The loss of the characteristic color of the species of wood in question. The color becomes lighter and in extreme cases the wood may become white cream to white in color.

BLEED The intentional draining of a portion of system water from a cooling water recirculating system to drain. A means of controlling the concentration of dissolved solids in system water.

BLEED-OFF Refer to Blowdown.

BLEED RATE The rate at which water is bled from a cooling water recirculating system.

BLEED THROUGH When all of the iron is not being removed ruing the service cycle of a water softener or iron remover, the iron remaining in the effluent or treated water is usually referred to as "Bleed Through".

BLEED-VALUE Valve with small opening inside which permits a minimum fluid flow when valve is closed.

BLISTERS Elliptical bulges with the long axis parallel to the long axis of the tube, caused by slow overheating.

BLOOD TOXINS Chemicals that alter or damage blood cells or cause a decrease in the ability of hemoglobin to deliver oxygen to tissues.

BLOWDOWN (Purge) Remove impurities concentrated in circulating water due to intensification of solids by water evaporation loss, by bleeding off a small percentage of the total flow.

BLOWDOWN RATE This generally refers to continuous blowdown where the regulated amount of water withdrawn is expressed in volumetric quantities per unit time, as gallons per minute, etc.

BLOWPIT The vessel receiving cooked wood pulp form the digester.

BOARD FOOT A unit of measurement of lumber represented by a board 1' long, 12" wide, and 1" thick or its cubic equivalent.

BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) Amount of oxygen necessary in the water for bacteria to consume the organic sewage. It is used as a measure in telling how well a sewage treatment plant is working.

BOD 5 A measure of the oxygen consumption by aerobic organisms over a 5 day test period at 20C. It is an indirect measure of the concentration of biologically degradable material present in organic wastes contained in a waste stream.

BOILER HORSEPOWER The ability to evaporate 34.5 lb. of water to stream from and at 212F.

BOILER WATER A term construed to mean a representative sample of the circulating boiler water, after the generated steam has been separated, and before the incoming feed water or added chemical becomes mixed with it so that its composition is affected.

BOILER HORSEPOWER By definition, the generation of 34.5 pounds of steam per hour from and at 212F.

BOILING (VAPORIZATION) POINT The temperature at which a liquid vaporizes upon addition of heat and at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the absolute external pressure at the liquid-vapor interface.

BOM OR BuMINES Bureau of Mines of the U.S. Department of Interior. BOM began approving air breathing apparatus in 1918, later adding all types of respirators. BOM's respirator testing/approval activities have been discontinued; NIOSH now has this responsibility.

BOTTOM BLOWDOWN Brief, intermittent blowdown from the lower mud drum or bottom of the boiler. Intermittent, bottom blowdown removes suspended solids from the mud drum or lower portions of the boiler where sludge accumulates because of design circulation patterns.

BOTTOM SLUDGE SCRAPER A slowly turning rake that scrapes sludge from the sedimentation basin bottom.

BOTULINUS ORGANISMS Those that cause acute food poisoning.

BOUND WATER Water that is chemically bonded to solids or contained inside cell bodies.

BOURDON TUBE As used in pressure gauges. Thin walled tube of elastic metal flattened and bent into circular shape, which tends to straighten as pressure inside is increased.

BOYLE'S LAW Law of physics-volume of a gas varies as pressure varies if temperature remains the same. Examples: If pressure is doubled on quantity of gas, volume becomes one half. If volume becomes doubled, gas has its pressure reduced by one half.

BRACKISH WATER Water having a dissolved matter content I the range of approximately 1,000 to 30,000 mg/liter.

BRAKE HORSEPOWER The brake horsepower is the horsepower delivered by the compressor motor.

BRASH The wood is brittle and it will break readily along a given plane. The break is relatively clean without many rough or sharp protruding edges. This type of deterioration is also characterized by loss in strength and resiliency. This effect may be produced by exposure to high temperature (150 F) with high moisture as in a cooling tower. Wood may also become brash as a result of chemical and biological attack. Brashness is a characteristic which usually develops at a slow rate.

BRASS Alloys of copper and zinc in various ratios.

BRAZING Method of joining metals with nonferrous filler (without iron) using heat between 800F. and melting point of base metals.

BREADING Titration of a 100 ml water sample to phenolphthalein end point with N/30 acid after the addition of BaCl2.

BREAK The inversion of the polymer molecule from the oil phase of the emulsion.

BREAKPOINT CHLORINATION A process wherein enough chlorine is added to destroy the chloramines and organics, and the total chlorine remaining is almost wholly composed of free available chlorine.

BREAKTHROUGH The first appearance in the solution flowing from an ion exchange unit of unadsorbed ions similar to those which are depleting the activity of the resin bed. Breakthrough is an indication that regeneration of the resin is necessary.

BREECHING Flue gas ductwork between the boiler and the stack.

BRIDGING A process in which the long molecular structure of a polymer causes floc to bridge together, forming a larger and more sturdy floc.

BRIDGING The caking of salt in a dry-salt brine tank which causes failure of the liquid or brine, beneath the dry salt, to become saturated. The net result of bridging is insufficient salt to properly regenerate the resin.

BRINE Any liquid cooled by the refrigerant and used for the transmission of heat without a change in its state, having no flash point or a flash point above 150F as determined by American Society for Testing and Materials Method D93.

BRINE Water having more than approximately 30,000 mg/liter of dissolved matter.

BRINE STRATIFIER The separate piping or distribution system inside the softener tank which lessens dilution of the brine from the water in the freeboard. A stratifier distributes the brine more efficiently or uniformly and is usually require in softeners of 54" or greater diameters.

BRINE STRENGTH For proper regeneration, the brine, as it contacts the resin, should contain at least 8% salt by weight, which is equal to about 30% of saturation.

BRINE TANK A separate tank used to store water and salt to form a brine solution.

BRINELL HARDNESS NUMBER (BHN) A hardness index calculated from the area of penetration by a large indenter. The indentation is made by a very hard steel or tungsten carbide ball under a standard load.

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Btu) The Btu is defined as 778.177 foot-pounds if it is related to the IT calorie in such a way that 1 IT calorie per (kg) (C deg) = 1 Btu per (lb) (F deg), with 1 lb = 453.5924g. Approximately, it is the heat required to raise the temperature of a pound of water from 59F. to 60F.

BRITTLE FRACTURE Fracture with minimal plastic deformation.

BROKE Trim or excess sheet from paper manufacture returned to a pulping device for recovery.

BROMINATOR A device that used water flow and temperature to control the dissolution of solid bromine oxide within a chamber before the bromine is fed to a cooling water system.

BROWN ROT That type of decay in which the cellulose is preferentially attacked by the wood decaying fungus. The wood becomes darkened in color, usually chocolate brown, punky, brittle and checked. Although the cellulose is attacked preferentially, the lignin is also degraded. This type of decay results in loss of strength of the wood. This is the type of decay found and described as internal decay in cooing towers. This type of decay usually is restricted to the supporting structures, cell partitions and drift eliminator sections of the tower.

BS&W (bottom sediment and water) A measure of oil quality based on the volume percent of sediment and water that can be centrifuged from a sample.

BTU British thermal unit, the quantity of heat required to raise one pound of water 1F.

BUFFER A substance in solution which accepts hydrogen ions or hydroxyl ions added to the solution as acids or alkalies, minimizing a change in pH.

BUFFERED CHARCOAL YEAST AGAR (BCYE) The same nutrient base as CYE except it contains ACES buffer 10.0 grams, which is shown to provide better growth conditions for Legionella. The final pH must be 6.9 for optimum results.

BUILDING DRAIN Lowest horizontal part of a building drainage system.

BUILDING DRAINAGE SYSTEM Piping provided for carrying wastewater or other drainage from a building to the street sewer.

BULK WATER The water contained in the entire system.

BULKING Production of a light, fluffy biomass, usually due to the presence of filamentous organisms.

BULKING SLUDGE Activated sludge that settles poorly because of low-density floc.

BURNOUT (REFRIGERATION SYSTEM) The internal electrical failure of a sealed or hermetically sealed condensing unit motor or pump motor.

BYPASS Passage at one side of, or around regular passage.


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